Colon cancer is defined as a disease that includes the growth of a malignant tumor in the large intestine, medically called the colon, and it is called colorectal cancer when uncontrolled proliferation of cells occurs inside the colon or rectum, and the colon forms a muscular tube with a length of about 1.22 meters, and its importance lies in the absorption of water from the body to the digestive system, in addition to its role in the formation of stool and its delivery to the rectum for disposal. It can be said that the colon includes that area beyond the small intestine into the rectum of the digestive tract.

The colon consists of several parts, as it begins in the ascending colon, which is the part that extends upwards on the right side of the abdomen, then the transverse colon, which extends from the right side of the abdomen to the left side, then the descending colon, which extends down the left side of the abdomen, Then the last part, which is the sigmoid colon, which is the part connected to the rectum, and according to a study conducted by the World Health Organization in 2018, colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer, but it is one of the diseases that can be prevented, treated and cured easily and completely, especially if it is diagnosed in its early stages. early.

Causes of colon cancer
Colon cancer usually appears in the lower parts of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, or rectum, but it may also appear in any part of the colon or rectum. In general, colon cancer arises as a result of the uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the colon. Colon, as a result of a group of mutations (in English: Mutation) in the genetic material inside these cells called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and these cancer cells continue to grow and multiply in the colon or rectum, and in addition, these cells may spread to places Others in the body, such as the lymph nodes and organs adjacent to the colon, especially the liver or lungs.

Until now, the direct cause of colon cancer is still unknown, but it usually starts from the formation of so-called polyps, which are small, benign gatherings of cells. It should be noted that these benign tumors are very common in people with: the elderly, as it is estimated that One in four people over the age of 50 has at least one of these benign tumors. In addition, it should be noted that in most cases these benign tumors do not cause any health problems, except that they may transform in other cases. into malignant tumors, and this transformation process takes many years, since most cancer cases arise from polyps that have been present for five to fifteen years.


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